Celts/History

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(http://magyarmegmaradasert.hu/in-english/multi-topic/1672-celts-and-magyars)According to Myles Dillon and Nora Chadwick, the first Celtic settlements appeared in the British Isles in the Early Bronze Age (around 1180 B.C.). They consider England's indigenous population at the end of the Stone Age to be Proto-Celts. Leon E. Stover and Bruce Kraig, English archaeologists, deduce from the prehistoric finds in Wessex and Hungary that the Celts may have been already present in Europe in the third millennium B.C. This date surpassed by far the imaginings of 19th century linguists and ethnographers who believed the Celts to be of Indo-European origin...[7]

As a result of contemporary research, it has become clear that the Celts had very little connections with the (Indo)-European people whom the massive Central Asian wave of migration found here, at the end of the New Stone Age, at the edge of Europe, between the Northern and Southern seas. At that time, Central Europe, beginning from the Northern slopes of the Alps to the Central Mountain region of the Germanic territories, i.e. the Danube-Main-Rhine region, was covered by thick and extensive forests. There could not have been considerable population here.

Three-thousand years ago, the extent of slash and burn deforestation increased markedly, which we can deduce from the amount of burnt wood and charcoal found in the soil strata. This is connected with the gradual arrival of the Central Asian equestrians to Central Europe. We cannot give a reliable answer as to the reason that they started to come toward the West. Maybe overpopulation presented a problem, but it could also be that climate-changes were to blame. The spread or migration was made possible by the wagons which the equestrian cultures were able to create. They were able to breed horses strong enough to pull these wagons and travel long distances with them. The Scythians and also the Cimmerians (who are hard to pin down in history) spread and, when the latter made military incursions into the Danube Basin, they were joined by Thracians in the territory of the Northern Balkans.[8]

(Conservapedia) The origin of the Celts is currently disputed, genetic evidence suggests the Celts originated in south west France [2] whilst cultural and some historical evidence suggests that the Celts originated in Switzerland. The Celts were never a single unified power but rather a collection of related tribes and kingdoms which, in the 3rd century BC, at their greatest spread covered vast swathes of Europe from the Black Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the early accounts of the Celts come from Hellenic sources as the Celts had little written language until the Middle Ages. Because the greatest contact between the Celts and Greeks was martial much of the early records are of such a nature and also of uncertain neutrality. One non military account of the early celts is from the Latin writer Avienus who states that the Celts were famous seafarers who built vessels from leather rather than pine.[3]

The dominance of the Celts over Europe was gradually replaced by the rise of Rome and then finished on the continent by the great Germanic migrations that caused Rome's fall. Whilst the Celts in mainland Europe were in catastrophic decline the Insular Celts of the British isles were thriving. The Insular Celts were a major factor in the spread of Christianity in north west Europe during this time. During the Middle Ages the smaller Celtic kingdoms of the British Isles amalgamated into larger kingdoms, such as Rìoghachd na h-Alba which later became the kingdom of Scotland. Much of the history of the Celts at this time is occupied with internal conflict amongst rival Celtic Kingdoms and Clans and external conflict against Anglo-Saxons, Vikings and Normans.

(Ancient-Battles)

http://www.ancient-battles.com/catw/belgae.htm

Well known and described by Caesar, as the "bravest of the gauls" as they were an old alliances of peoples with strong connections with the germanic world and gallic world, they were probably ancient treves peoples from the east of the Rhine, who settled in 500-600 bc from frisa to the north of gauls. "Belgae" is an ancient term meaning "men of the alliance" or more simply, "allied". The fact is that most of the ancient belgians were probably of germanic origin, but with a celtic and especially gallic acculturation, once settled for centuries. They were settled in western britain at an undetermined time, probably one or two centuries before Ceasar campaign, as coins and evidence of a local belgian strong aristocracy in 300 bc.

With a mixed origin, germanic and celtic, and using gallic armours, helmets, weapons, the belgians were naturally gifted for conquest. In 300 bc, their tactics shadowed those of the neighbouring Gauls. They relied on a heavy infantry made of spearmen accustomed to form a phalanx, sustained by thousands of light levied spearmen, and surrounded by skilled sworsmen and skirmishers. Slingers, archers, and long-range skirmishers were of course, always posted on the front. But the Bellovaci army was characterised by more chariots than cavalry on their wings. Chariots were even the most current way of fighning of the Bellovaci nobility. The main reason was an old practice related with flat plains of these nothern lands. However, the Remi people furnished an excellent and reputed cavalry as a client, and the usual cavalry was made of light and nervous horses fightning in the Germanic fashion, intermixed with infantrymen. The lasts were in charge to sustain the cavalrymen by running through and using spears to dismount enemies in the melee.

After their conquest of Britain, the Belovaci soon subdued or chased local tribes, like the Siluri. At the time of the gallic wars, the Siluri and other neighbour tribesmen has adopted the trousers and many elites used modern helmets. The war chariot, unknown in britain, became then the characteristic way of fightning of the locals, with a guerrilla-tactic by small groups of men, as described Caesar.