Nubia was the area along the Nile south of Egypy, from the 1st cataract onwards. The main trade routs froim tropical africa passed through Nubia to egypt with gold ivory, ebony and incense. north nubia's peoples were similar in physical appearance to Egyptians but darker skinned while soytgern nubians had a more Black African appearance.
Nubia was annexed by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt annd to consolidate egyptiain nubia a chaiun of forts were erected up to the 2nd cararact, with pharaoh sensuret III having expanded egyptian influence all the way to Semna. This territory was lost, but ;later regained at the onset of the New Kingdom period in Egypt.